Vitebsk Governorate was part of different administrative divisions (Western Oblast/Western Commune) during 1917-19, and eventually became a part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). In 1919, July, Sennensky county was transferred to Vitebsk Governorate from Mogilev Governorate, in 1920, November, Orshansky county of Gomel Governorate (newly-established administrative division consisting of demolished Mogilev Governorate’s counties).
According to the agreement established between RSFSR and Latvia in 1920, Latvia claimed the territories of Dwinsky, Lucinsky and Rezhytsky counties. Gorodokssy, Drissensky and Sennensky counties were demolished on 1923; Lepelsky county was renamed into Bocheykrvsky. Vitebsk county was demolished on 10.03.1924. Vitebsky, Gorodoksky, Drissensky, Lepelsky, Polotsky, Sennensky, Surazhsky counties were established as part of Belarus SSR; Wielizhsky, Nevelsky, Sebezhsky became part of Pskov Governorate of RSFSR.